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IDF Moscow 2004: baya, yanzu da nan gaba na WiMAX Daga cikin abubuwan IT na shekara-shekara na kaka, Intel Developer Forum yana daya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da suka faru, a cikin shekara ta uku a jere daidai da jan hankalin masu karatu da duk 'yan'uwa da ke rubutu game da batutuwan kwamfuta. Waɗannan tarurrukan sun zama masu ban sha'awa musamman bayan kwas ɗin Intel da aka sanar a shekarar da ta gabata don ba da cikakken goyon baya ga yanayin masana'antar don haɗin gwiwar kayan aikin sadarwa da kwamfuta.

A yanzu haka al’ummar kamfanonin da ke halartar wannan dandalin, sun hada da masu samar da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani da na kwamfuta, masu kera kowane irin kayan aiki, gami da sadarwa da na’ura mai kwakwalwa. Wato, bisa ga bayanin martabar Mobile-Review.com - ba duka ba, amma da yawa.

Abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin za a iya raba su zuwa bangarori biyu cikakku na ma’ana, kowannensu ya cancanci fayyace dalla-dalla a kansa. Waɗannan rahotanni ne da yawa, gabatarwar kimiyya da aikin dakin gwaje-gwaje da Intel da abokan haɗin gwiwarsa ke gudanarwa a cikin haɗin gwiwa na haɓaka sabbin fasahohi. Bugu da kari, wannan nuni ne na kamfanoni a cikin masana'antar, inda mahalarta ke nuna galibin ci gaba mai ban sha'awa, maimakon samfuran da aka gama, ba kamar nunin IT na yau da kullun ba. Yin la'akari da cewa wani muhimmin ɓangare na baje kolin yana wakiltar kamfanonin Rasha, baƙo yana da damar yin la'akari da makomar manyan fasahohin gida daga kusurwar ido.

Zai yi kyau a ba da labari game da abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin har ma fiye da haka. Kaito, dole ne mutum ya zaɓi tsakanin salon "hare-hare" masu yawa akan duk abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin tattaunawa da labari game da wani maɓalli (a ganina). Game da sauran - wani lokaci kuma.

Ba asiri ba ne cewa gidajen yanar gizo na yanzu da na kamfanoni suna cikin layukan DSL masu sauri da na USB, nan gaba da yawa daga cikinsu za su zama mara waya. Tabbas, a yanzu yawancin kamfanonin sadarwa a duniya suna ba da gudummawa sosai wajen bunkasa hanyoyin sadarwar salula na zamani, musamman tsararraki na uku, wadanda, tare da ayyukan sadarwar gargajiya, suna ba da damar shiga Intanet cikin sauri da kuma hanyoyin sadarwar kamfanoni. A lokaci guda tare da wannan motsi a ɓangaren cibiyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu, tsarin "sauran gefen" yana girma da fadadawa, lokacin da cibiyar sadarwar kwamfuta ta al'ada ta zama mara waya, da yawa "tsawon tsayi", yana ƙara ba da musayar bayanai na gargajiya kawai, har ma da duka. nau'ikan zaɓuɓɓukan sadarwar murya, gami da VoIP yana haɓakawa sosai.

An bayyana ƙoƙarin farko na ƙirƙirar cibiyoyin sadarwa mara waya ta hanyar bayyanar wuraren shiga Wi-Fi na farko. A cikin ƴan shekaru, cibiyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi sun tafi daga yunƙurin jin kunya a wani abu ko žasa da tsari zuwa manyan abubuwan more rayuwa na kamfanoni da manyan hanyoyin sadarwa na wuraren samun dama a cikin ƙasashe da yawa da suka ci gaba, inda aka ba da ɗaukar hoto na Wi-Fi a cikin yanki na daidaikun mutane. . Tare da duk fa'idodin irin wannan mafita na "mile na ƙarshe" saboda tsadar kayan more rayuwa da ƙaramin radius na ɗaukar hoto na hanyar samun dama, ƙaramin yanki na masu amfani a duk faɗin duniya na iya samun irin waɗannan hanyoyin. A wannan kasa tamu, ci gaban irin wadannan hanyoyin sadarwa ya zuwa yanzu a daidai gwargwado, musamman a manyan birane, a ma’aikatun gwamnati, kuma har ya zuwa yanzu ba za a iya cewa suna da yawa ta kowace fuska. Sabuwar ƙayyadaddun ƙashin bayaWiMAX yana ba da damar haɗin mara waya mai sauri mai sauƙi don masu amfani da gida da kamfanoni, duka a cikin birane da yankunan karkara. WiMAX (Haɗin kai na Duniya don Samun Microwave) kalma ce ta laima don samun damar mara waya ta hanyar sadarwa ta hanyar IEEE 802.16 dangin ƙa'idodi. Za a shigar da wuraren shiga IEEE 802.16 musamman akan manyan gine-gine da matsi, kama da kayan sadarwar salula. Ba zato ba tsammani, masu aiki na cibiyoyin sadarwar salula ne suka fi sha'awar lasisi da siyan kayan aikin WiMAX, wanda hada irin wannan nau'in sadarwa a cikin tsarin su zai zama mafi ƙarancin tsada kuma a nan gaba, na iya kawo riba mai yawa. Aƙalla a gare ni da kaina, ba zai zama babban abin mamaki ba idan, bayan lokaci, cibiyoyin sadarwar salula na 3G / 4G suna tare da kayan aikin Wi-Fi / WiMAX, kuma a nan gaba za a matse su ta ƙarshe, saboda har yanzu. Babban aikin cibiyoyin sadarwar salula shine watsa bayanan murya wani yanki ne kawai na ayyukan wayar hannu ta al'ada. Matsala ce ta farko.

An fahimci cewa kayan aiki don cibiyoyin sadarwar WiMAX gabaɗaya ana sarrafa su a tashoshi na mitar a cikin kewayon 2 - 11 GHz, musamman ga ƙasashe daban-daban, a cikin sassan da ke da fadin tashar ta 10 MHz. A kan sikelin tashar tushe ɗaya na ƙarni na farko na samfuran WiMAX, ana sa ran za ta samar da hanyar shiga mara waya a kan yanki mai radiyon har zuwa kilomita 50 tare da mafi girman tashar tashar har zuwa 35 Mbps. Ƙididdigar da aka keɓe ga wani mai amfani yana ƙayyade ta mai bayarwa kuma ana iya daidaita shi duka a matakin DSL - ga daidaikun mutane, kuma har zuwa matakin T1 don ƙungiyoyi. Ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa an biya mafi girman hankali ga aiwatar da hanyoyin sadarwar WiMAX a cikin ƙasashe masu manyan yankuna da nisa daga manyan biranen, da kuma tare da kaso mai kyau na mutanen karkara. Ba wai kawai Brazil, China da Rasha sun fada cikin wannan rukuni ba, har ma, alal misali, Sweden, inda gabatarwar WiMAX ya kasance a yanzu - ba shakka, a matsayin ƙari ga GSM / EDGE da 3G.

A dandalin karshe, an sadaukar da da yawa ga batun ci gaban WiMAX. Wannan ya hada da nuni na IEEE802.16-2004 gwaji cibiyar sadarwa a cikin harabar da Rasha Academy of Sciences, da nunin kashin baya da abokin ciniki kayan aiki, da kuma, a karshe, wani cikakken rahoto a kan topic "Ci gaban Broadband Wireless damar: daga kafaffen dama ga motsi" wanda Dmitry Laryushin, manajan tallace-tallacen fasaha a Sashen Wireless Broadband na Intel ya yi.

Dangane da hangen nesa na Intel don haɓaka hanyoyin sadarwa mara igiyar waya a duk duniya, kayan aikin da aka tabbatar da WiMAX za su fara fitowa a kasuwa daga tsakiyar 2005.

Abokan haɗin gwiwar Intel da WiMAX a halin yanzu suna haɓaka samfuran manyan aikace-aikace guda uku don sabon ƙirar mara waya.

Ana haɓaka ƙayyadaddun samfurina matsayin madadin hanyoyin watsa siginar na USB/T1/DSL na gargajiya kuma an yi shi ne don sassan kasuwa waɗanda ba su da kyau kuma ba su cika aiki ta hanyar sabis na faɗaɗa ba - yankunan karkara. da kasashe masu tasowa. Amfani da wannan ƙirar yana nuna shigar da eriya ta waje, na'urorin ƙofa waɗanda ke yin ayyuka kama da na modem na USB da modem DSL. wannan samfurin za a siffanta shi ta amfani da Layer na jiki na OFDM256 da ka'idar IEEE802.16-2004.

Samfuran

Mai ɗaukana amfani da WiMAX shine ƙirƙirar hanyar sadarwa na ingantaccen haɗin Wi-Fi don wayar hannu da kafaffen abokan ciniki tare da kwamfutocin tebur, kwamfyutoci da PDAs. Na'urar abokin ciniki ta sake haɗawa kuma tana tabbatarwa a kowane kafaffen wurin sabis. Babban manufar ita ce samar da hanyar shiga Intanet da wayar VoIP. Wannan ƙirar za ta yi amfani da Layer na zahiri na OFDMA mai ƙima, ma'aunin IEEE802.16e, ayyukan tsaro na ci gaba (PKMv2), kuma yana aiki tare da daidaitawa da tsarin eriya na MIMO.

A ƙarshe, daTotal Motsi Model, ko "Ingantattun 3G Data" kamar yadda kuma ake kira. Ƙungiya mai niyya - masu amfani da wayoyin hannu da kwamfutocin aljihu tare da watsa murya da watsa bayanai, musaya da aka haɗa cikin motoci, da sauransu. Cikakken samfurin wayar hannu ya haɗa da damar samfurin šaukuwa tare da tallafi don aikace-aikacen ainihin lokaci, gami da murya da bidiyo yayin tafiya. Misalai na amfani sun haɗa da aikace-aikacen IP - damar Intanet, imel, saƙo, FTP, VPN, da sauransu; aikace-aikace na lokaci-lokaci - wasanni akan Intanet, rafukan bayanan multimedia, VoIP; Ayyukan bayanan 3G: sabis na tushen wuri, paging, SMS, MMS, E911. Babban abin da wannan samfurin zai mayar da hankali a kai shi ne yin amfani da ma'aunin IEEE802.16f/g tare da daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwa na cibiyar sadarwa.

Game da amfani da IEEE802.16e yarjejeniya tare da scalable OFDMA Layer na jiki wanda ya dace da adadin FFT sautunan da aka yi amfani da shi dangane da rabon da aka keɓe na bandwidth na tashar, a nan gaba, amfani da wannan fasaha zai ba da damar sassauƙa. daidaitawa ga kowane kasuwa na gida tare da bandwidth bakan sa. A lokaci guda, OFDMA tana goyan bayan tsarin eriya masu daidaitawa (AAS), wanda ke ba da damar watsa eriya da yawa da kuma rarraba watsawa, ƙirar katako, da tuƙi mara amfani.
OFDMA kuma tana goyan bayan saitin zaɓuɓɓukan eriya ta MIMO ta amfani da watsawa da yawa da karɓar jeri-jerun eriya.

Aikace-aikacen tsarin eriya 2, 3, ko 4 https://cars45.co.ke/listing/bmw The / 520i/2011 downlink (DL) da 2 uplink (UL) eriya suna ba da aiki mai sassauƙa da ɗaukar hoto tare da goyan baya don haɓakar sararin samaniya (SM) don iyakar ƙimar bakan. MIMO yana ƙara yawan hanyoyin yadawa tsakanin mai watsawa da mai karɓa, ana tattara bayanai game da tsarin SISO a cikin tashar faduwa idan hanyoyin yadawa sun bambanta. Ana iya amfani da MIMO don tsawaita kewayon hanyar sadarwar WiMAX. Hakanan yana ba da ɗimbin yawa don haɓaka ƙimar bayanai akan tsarin eriya ɗaya.

Duk da kamanceceniyar dangin IEEE802.16 na ma'auni, akwai wasu bambance-bambance a tsakanin su don dacewa da aikace-aikacen manufa daban-daban. Misali, kamar yadda aka nuna a zanen da ke sama. Babban abin da ke faruwa a wannan mataki shi ne ƙaddamar da ƙa'idar guda ɗaya ta duniya don tsarin šaukuwa da wayar hannu, da kuma haɗa hanyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi da WiMAX da na'urorin abokin ciniki don haɓaka juna.

Tabbas, jerin yuwuwar samfura don amfani da kayan aikin WiMAX bai iyakance ga wannan ba. Babban abũbuwan amfãni na WiMAX idan aka kwatanta da 3G ne mafi m amfani da mitar bakan don watsa bayanai, ƙarin Wi-Fi kewayon da ɗaukar hoto, kazalika da m goyon baya ga musayar bayanai a motsi abubuwa (har zuwa 120 km / h). Ƙara zuwa wannan akwai sassauƙan tsarin gine-gine don tallafawa aikin nasara na masu aiki da yawa, da kuma amfani da hanyoyin sadarwar IP don tabbatar da haɗin kai da rage farashin babban birnin.

Abin takaici, har yanzu akwai doguwar hanya a gaban takaddun shaida da gwajin haɗin gwiwa tare da tsarin šaukuwa da wayar hannu, da ƙarin rikitattun abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da hanyoyin sadarwar rediyo, ƙayyadaddun I/F da ma'amala, kafin sabbin ƙa'idodin WiMAX sun karɓe sosai. An tattauna wannan dalla-dalla a cikin kwanaki na Dandalin.

Bugu da ƙari, samun lasisi don amfani da kewayon mitar da ya dace yana haifar da matsala ga kasuwar Rasha. A Arewacin Amirka, WiMAX zai yi amfani da sassan a cikin 2.5 da 5 GHz band, a Tsakiya da Kudancin Amirka - 2.5, 3.5 da kuma 5 GHz, a Gabas ta Tsakiya, Afirka, Yammacin Turai da Gabashin Turai - 3.5 da 5 GHz, a cikin Asia- Yankin Pacific - 2.3, 3.5 da 5 GHz. A cikin ƙasarmu, ana sa ran samun lasisi don rukunin 5 GHz, duk da haka, har yanzu ba a warware wasu matsaloli tare da janye wannan rukunin daga ikon soja ba. An danƙa yanke shawarar duk batutuwa ga ƙungiyar WiMAX Forum da aka ƙirƙira don waɗannan dalilai.


A nunin, wanda ya faru a yayin taron, an nuna wa jama'a gabaɗayan guntu guda ɗaya na Intel Rosedale bayani, wanda ya haɗa da matakin MAC na daidaitattun 802.16-2004 (wanda aka fi sani da IEEE 802.16REVd) da OFDM ( Matsakaicin Frequency Division Multiplexing) ƙa'idar Layer na zahiri, da kuma ginanniyar tsarin tsaro na bayanai da haɗin kai tare da mai sarrafa lokaci mai yawa. Za a shigar da wannan kayan aiki a gidaje da kasuwanci, tare da ba da liyafar karɓa da watsa sigina don shiga Intanet.

Gabaɗaya, ana iya kiran guntu na Rosedale tushen tsarin abokin ciniki na WiMAX guda ɗaya na farko wanda ke nufin kayan aikin kwamfuta masu rahusa. Gaskiya ne, a matakin farko, farashin na'urorin WiMAX abokin ciniki zai kasance kusan $ 350. Koyaya, tare da ci gaba da yaduwar fasaha, farashin kayan aiki zai ragu zuwa $ 200, sannan gaba ɗaya daidai da farashin kayan masarufi don cibiyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi na zamani.

Aikin Intel na haɓaka fasahar WiMAX a Rasha ana aiwatar da shi ne tare da haɗin gwiwar Ƙungiyar Sadarwa ta Documentary Telecommunications Association (ADE) ta ƙungiyar jama'a ta Ƙungiyar Aiki akan hanyoyin sadarwar bayanan mara waya.

A matsayin wani ɓangare na uku na Rasha Intel Forum for Developers, da jama'a fasahar zanga-zanga na 802.16a misali tsarin (WiMAX) da aka kaddamar, developer da maroki wanda shi ne cikin gida kamfanin RM Telecom, abokin tarayya na Alvarion, wanda ya sanya hannu. yarjejeniya mai mahimmanci tare da Intel Corporation akan haɓaka tsarin WiMAX. A cikin tsarin dandalin, RM Telecom ya nuna samfurin irin waɗannan dandamali - tsarin BreezeACCESS VL, yana ba da gidan yanar gizon Intanet a cikin ginin Cibiyar Kimiyyar Kimiyya ta Rasha tare da tashar tushe da na'urorin abokin ciniki da yawa da ke tallafawa fasahar 802.16a (WiMAX).

Game da rumbunan tasha, farashinsu na farko zai canja kusan dala 100,000, duk da haka, bayan lokaci, zai ragu zuwa $20,000.

Daga cikin fiye da 80 tsaye na nunin fasahohi da mafita, tsayawar R.M.Telecom ya kasance mai ban sha'awa ta hanyar nuna kayan aiki don tsara hanyoyin sadarwar mara waya ta kashin baya da hanyar Intanet mara waya: Tashoshin rediyo na WOCCOM na Rasha tare da bandwidth na har zuwa 100 Mbps. , Ƙarshe kayan aikin Motorola Canopy da Alvarion BreezeACCESS VL OFDM misali.


Dangane da abubuwan da aka sa ran za a iya tura WiMAX a cikin shekaru masu zuwa, Intel na ganin fara aikin watsa shirye-shiryen watsa shirye-shirye don bangaren SOHO da kasuwar tsarin mabukaci a cikin 2005, WiMAX a cikin wayoyin hannu da tallafin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka a 2006. A shekara ta 2007, WiMAX na iya yaduwa cikin sauri a cikin kwamfutocin tafi-da-gidanka, kuma nan da shekara ta 2008 an yi hasashen cewa za a aiwatar da goyon bayan mizanin a kashi 50% na kwamfutocin da ake sayar da su a duniya.

A shekara ta 2009, manazarta suna tsammanin 802.16/WiMAX na tushen ababen more rayuwa na cibiyar sadarwa mara waya zai fara girma cikin sauri. An yi hasashen cewa siyar da kayan aikin WiMAX na iya kai kusan dala biliyan biyu cikin shekaru biyar.

IDF Moscow 2004: baya, yanzu da nan gaba na WiMAX Daga cikin abubuwan IT na shekara-shekara na kaka, Intel Developer Forum yana daya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da suka faru, a cikin shekara ta uku a jere daidai da jan hankalin masu karatu da duk 'yan'uwa da ke rubutu game da batutuwan kwamfuta. Waɗannan tarurrukan sun zama masu ban sha'awa musamman bayan kwas ɗin Intel da aka sanar a shekarar da ta gabata don ba da cikakken goyon baya ga yanayin masana'antar don haɗin gwiwar kayan aikin sadarwa da kwamfuta.

A yanzu haka al’ummar kamfanonin da ke halartar wannan dandalin, sun hada da masu samar da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani da na kwamfuta, masu kera kowane irin kayan aiki, gami da sadarwa da na’ura mai kwakwalwa. Wato, bisa ga bayanin martabar Mobile-Review.com - ba duka ba, amma da yawa.

Abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin za a iya raba su zuwa bangarori biyu cikakku na ma’ana, kowannensu ya cancanci fayyace dalla-dalla a kansa. Waɗannan rahotanni ne da yawa, gabatarwar kimiyya da aikin dakin gwaje-gwaje da Intel da abokan haɗin gwiwarsa ke gudanarwa a cikin haɗin gwiwa na haɓaka sabbin fasahohi. Bugu da kari, wannan nuni ne na kamfanoni a cikin masana'antar, inda mahalarta ke nuna galibin ci gaba mai ban sha'awa, maimakon samfuran da aka gama, ba kamar nunin IT na yau da kullun ba. Yin la'akari da cewa wani muhimmin ɓangare na baje kolin yana wakiltar kamfanonin Rasha, baƙo yana da damar yin la'akari da makomar manyan fasahohin gida daga kusurwar ido.

Zai yi kyau a ba da labari game da abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin har ma fiye da haka. Kaito, dole ne mutum ya zaɓi tsakanin salon "hare-hare" masu yawa akan duk abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin tattaunawa da labari game da wani maɓalli (a ganina). Game da sauran - wani lokaci kuma.

Ba asiri ba ne cewa gidajen yanar gizo na yanzu da na kamfanoni suna cikin layukan DSL masu sauri da na USB, nan gaba da yawa daga cikinsu za su zama mara waya. Tabbas, a yanzu yawancin kamfanonin sadarwa a duniya suna ba da gudummawa sosai wajen bunkasa hanyoyin sadarwar salula na zamani, musamman tsararraki na uku, wadanda, tare da ayyukan sadarwar gargajiya, suna ba da damar shiga Intanet cikin sauri da kuma hanyoyin sadarwar kamfanoni. A lokaci guda tare da wannan motsi a ɓangaren cibiyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu, tsarin "sauran gefen" yana girma da fadadawa, lokacin da cibiyar sadarwar kwamfuta ta al'ada ta zama mara waya, da yawa "tsawon tsayi", yana ƙara ba da musayar bayanai na gargajiya kawai, har ma da duka. nau'ikan zaɓuɓɓukan sadarwar murya, gami da VoIP yana haɓakawa sosai.

An bayyana ƙoƙarin farko na ƙirƙirar cibiyoyin sadarwa mara waya ta hanyar bayyanar wuraren shiga Wi-Fi na farko. A cikin ƴan shekaru, cibiyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi sun tafi daga yunƙurin jin kunya a wani abu ko žasa da tsari zuwa manyan abubuwan more rayuwa na kamfanoni da manyan hanyoyin sadarwa na wuraren samun dama a cikin ƙasashe da yawa da suka ci gaba, inda aka ba da ɗaukar hoto na Wi-Fi a cikin yanki na daidaikun mutane. . Tare da duk fa'idodin irin wannan mafita na "mile na ƙarshe" saboda tsadar kayan more rayuwa da ƙaramin radius na ɗaukar hoto na hanyar samun dama, ƙaramin yanki na masu amfani a duk faɗin duniya na iya samun irin waɗannan hanyoyin. A wannan kasa tamu, ci gaban irin wadannan hanyoyin sadarwa ya zuwa yanzu a daidai gwargwado, musamman a manyan birane, a ma’aikatun gwamnati, kuma har ya zuwa yanzu ba za a iya cewa suna da yawa ta kowace fuska. Sabuwar ƙayyadaddun ƙashin bayaWiMAX yana ba da damar haɗin mara waya mai sauri mai sauƙi don masu amfani da gida da kamfanoni, duka a cikin birane da yankunan karkara. WiMAX (Haɗin kai na Duniya don Samun Microwave) kalma ce ta laima don samun damar mara waya ta hanyar sadarwa ta hanyar IEEE 802.16 dangin ƙa'idodi. Za a shigar da wuraren shiga IEEE 802.16 musamman akan manyan gine-gine da matsi, kama da kayan sadarwar salula. Ba zato ba tsammani, masu aiki na cibiyoyin sadarwar salula ne suka fi sha'awar lasisi da siyan kayan aikin WiMAX, wanda hada irin wannan nau'in sadarwa a cikin tsarin su zai zama mafi ƙarancin tsada kuma a nan gaba, na iya kawo riba mai yawa. Aƙalla a gare ni da kaina, ba zai zama babban abin mamaki ba idan, bayan lokaci, cibiyoyin sadarwar salula na 3G / 4G suna tare da kayan aikin Wi-Fi / WiMAX, kuma a nan gaba za a matse su ta ƙarshe, saboda har yanzu. Babban aikin cibiyoyin sadarwar salula shine watsa bayanan murya wani yanki ne kawai na ayyukan wayar hannu ta al'ada. Matsala ce ta farko.

An fahimci cewa kayan aiki don cibiyoyin sadarwar WiMAX gabaɗaya ana sarrafa su a tashoshi na mitar a cikin kewayon 2 - 11 GHz, musamman ga ƙasashe daban-daban, a cikin sassan da ke da fadin tashar ta 10 MHz. A kan sikelin tashar tushe ɗaya na ƙarni na farko na samfuran WiMAX, ana sa ran za ta samar da hanyar shiga mara waya a kan yanki mai radiyon har zuwa kilomita 50 tare da mafi girman tashar tashar har zuwa 35 Mbps. Ƙididdigar da aka keɓe ga wani mai amfani yana ƙayyade ta mai bayarwa kuma ana iya daidaita shi duka a matakin DSL - ga daidaikun mutane, kuma har zuwa matakin T1 don ƙungiyoyi. Ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa an biya mafi girman hankali ga aiwatar da hanyoyin sadarwar WiMAX a cikin ƙasashe masu manyan yankuna da nisa daga manyan biranen, da kuma tare da kaso mai kyau na mutanen karkara. Ba wai kawai Brazil, China da Rasha sun fada cikin wannan rukuni ba, har ma, alal misali, Sweden, inda gabatarwar WiMAX ya kasance a yanzu - ba shakka, a matsayin ƙari ga GSM / EDGE da 3G.

A dandalin karshe, an sadaukar da da yawa ga batun ci gaban WiMAX. Wannan ya hada da nuni na IEEE802.16-2004 gwaji cibiyar sadarwa a cikin harabar da Rasha Academy of Sciences, da nunin kashin baya da abokin ciniki kayan aiki, da kuma, a karshe, wani cikakken rahoto a kan topic "Ci gaban Broadband Wireless damar: daga kafaffen dama ga motsi" wanda Dmitry Laryushin, manajan tallace-tallacen fasaha a Sashen Wireless Broadband na Intel ya yi.

Dangane da hangen nesa na Intel don haɓaka hanyoyin sadarwa mara igiyar waya a duk duniya, kayan aikin da aka tabbatar da WiMAX za su fara fitowa a kasuwa daga tsakiyar 2005.

Abokan haɗin gwiwar Intel da WiMAX a halin yanzu suna haɓaka samfuran manyan aikace-aikace guda uku don sabon ƙirar mara waya.

Ana haɓaka ƙayyadaddun samfurina matsayin madadin hanyoyin watsa siginar na USB/T1/DSL na gargajiya kuma an yi shi ne don sassan kasuwa waɗanda ba su da kyau kuma ba su cika aiki ta hanyar sabis na faɗaɗa ba - yankunan karkara. da kasashe masu tasowa. Amfani da wannan ƙirar yana nuna shigar da eriya ta waje, na'urorin ƙofa waɗanda ke yin ayyuka kama da na modem na USB da modem DSL. wannan samfurin za a siffanta shi ta amfani da Layer na jiki na OFDM256 da ka'idar IEEE802.16-2004.

Samfuran

Mai ɗaukana amfani da WiMAX shine ƙirƙirar hanyar sadarwa na ingantaccen haɗin Wi-Fi don wayar hannu da kafaffen abokan ciniki tare da kwamfutocin tebur, kwamfyutoci da PDAs. Na'urar abokin ciniki ta sake haɗawa kuma tana tabbatarwa a kowane kafaffen wurin sabis. Babban manufar ita ce samar da hanyar shiga Intanet da wayar VoIP. Wannan ƙirar za ta yi amfani da Layer na zahiri na OFDMA mai ƙima, ma'aunin IEEE802.16e, ayyukan tsaro na ci gaba (PKMv2), kuma yana aiki tare da daidaitawa da tsarin eriya na MIMO.

A ƙarshe, daTotal Motsi Model, ko "Ingantattun 3G Data" kamar yadda kuma ake kira. Ƙungiya mai niyya - masu amfani da wayoyin hannu da kwamfutocin aljihu tare da watsa murya da watsa bayanai, musaya da aka haɗa cikin motoci, da sauransu. Cikakken samfurin wayar hannu ya haɗa da damar samfurin šaukuwa tare da tallafi don aikace-aikacen ainihin lokaci, gami da murya da bidiyo yayin tafiya. Misalai na amfani sun haɗa da aikace-aikacen IP - damar Intanet, imel, saƙo, FTP, VPN, da sauransu; aikace-aikace na lokaci-lokaci - wasanni akan Intanet, rafukan bayanan multimedia, VoIP; Ayyukan bayanan 3G: sabis na tushen wuri, paging, SMS, MMS, E911. Babban abin da wannan samfurin zai mayar da hankali a kai shi ne yin amfani da ma'aunin IEEE802.16f/g tare da daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwa na cibiyar sadarwa.

Game da amfani da IEEE802.16e yarjejeniya tare da scalable OFDMA Layer na jiki wanda ya dace da adadin FFT sautunan da aka yi amfani da shi dangane da rabon da aka keɓe na bandwidth na tashar, a nan gaba, amfani da wannan fasaha zai ba da damar sassauƙa. daidaitawa ga kowane kasuwa na gida tare da bandwidth bakan sa. A lokaci guda, OFDMA tana goyan bayan tsarin eriya masu daidaitawa (AAS), wanda ke ba da damar watsa eriya da yawa da kuma rarraba watsawa, ƙirar katako, da tuƙi mara amfani.
OFDMA kuma tana goyan bayan saitin zaɓuɓɓukan eriya ta MIMO ta amfani da watsawa da yawa da karɓar jeri-jerun eriya.

Aikace-aikacen tsarin eriya 2, 3, ko 4 https://cars45.co.ke/listing/bmw The / 520i/2011 downlink (DL) da 2 uplink (UL) eriya suna ba da aiki mai sassauƙa da ɗaukar hoto tare da goyan baya don haɓakar sararin samaniya (SM) don iyakar ƙimar bakan. MIMO yana ƙara yawan hanyoyin yadawa tsakanin mai watsawa da mai karɓa, ana tattara bayanai game da tsarin SISO a cikin tashar faduwa idan hanyoyin yadawa sun bambanta. Ana iya amfani da MIMO don tsawaita kewayon hanyar sadarwar WiMAX. Hakanan yana ba da ɗimbin yawa don haɓaka ƙimar bayanai akan tsarin eriya ɗaya.

Duk da kamanceceniyar dangin IEEE802.16 na ma'auni, akwai wasu bambance-bambance a tsakanin su don dacewa da aikace-aikacen manufa daban-daban. Misali, kamar yadda aka nuna a zanen da ke sama. Babban abin da ke faruwa a wannan mataki shi ne ƙaddamar da ƙa'idar guda ɗaya ta duniya don tsarin šaukuwa da wayar hannu, da kuma haɗa hanyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi da WiMAX da na'urorin abokin ciniki don haɓaka juna.

Tabbas, jerin yuwuwar samfura don amfani da kayan aikin WiMAX bai iyakance ga wannan ba. Babban fa'idodin WiMAX idan aka kwatanta da 3G ana kiran su da ingantaccen amfani da bakan mitar don watsa bayanai, ƙarin kewayon Wi-Fi da ɗaukar hoto, kazalika da ƙarfin gwiwa don musayar bayanai a cikin abubuwan motsi (har zuwa 120 km / h). Ƙara zuwa wannan akwai sassauƙan tsarin gine-gine don tallafawa aikin nasara na masu aiki da yawa, da kuma amfani da hanyoyin sadarwar IP don tabbatar da haɗin kai da rage farashin babban birnin.

Abin takaici, har yanzu akwai doguwar hanya a gaban takaddun shaida da gwajin haɗin gwiwa tare da tsarin šaukuwa da wayar hannu, da ƙarin rikitattun abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da hanyoyin sadarwar rediyo, ƙayyadaddun I/F da ma'amala, kafin sabbin ƙa'idodin WiMAX sun karɓe sosai. An tattauna wannan dalla-dalla a cikin kwanaki na Dandalin.

Bugu da ƙari, samun lasisi don amfani da kewayon mitar da ya dace yana haifar da matsala ga kasuwar Rasha. A Arewacin Amirka, WiMAX zai yi amfani da sassan a cikin 2.5 da 5 GHz band, a Tsakiya da Kudancin Amirka - 2.5, 3.5 da kuma 5 GHz, a Gabas ta Tsakiya, Afirka, Yammacin Turai da Gabashin Turai - 3.5 da 5 GHz, a cikin Asia- Yankin Pacific - 2.3, 3.5 da 5 GHz. A cikin ƙasarmu, ana sa ran samun lasisi don rukunin 5 GHz, duk da haka, har yanzu ba a warware wasu matsaloli tare da janye wannan rukunin daga ikon soja ba. An danƙa yanke shawarar duk batutuwa ga ƙungiyar WiMAX Forum da aka ƙirƙira don waɗannan dalilai.


A nunin, wanda ya faru a yayin taron, an nuna wa jama'a gabaɗayan guntu guda ɗaya na Intel Rosedale bayani, wanda ya haɗa da matakin MAC na daidaitattun 802.16-2004 (wanda aka fi sani da IEEE 802.16REVd) da OFDM ( Matsakaicin Frequency Division Multiplexing) ƙa'idar Layer na zahiri, da kuma ginanniyar tsarin tsaro na bayanai da haɗin kai tare da mai sarrafa lokaci mai yawa. Za a shigar da wannan kayan aiki a gidaje da kasuwanci, tare da ba da liyafar karɓa da watsa sigina don shiga Intanet.

Gabaɗaya, ana iya kiran guntu na Rosedale tushen tsarin abokin ciniki na WiMAX guda ɗaya na farko wanda ke nufin kayan aikin kwamfuta masu rahusa. Gaskiya ne, a matakin farko, farashin na'urorin WiMAX abokin ciniki zai kasance kusan $ 350. Koyaya, tare da ci gaba da yaduwar fasaha, farashin kayan aiki zai ragu zuwa $ 200, sannan gaba ɗaya daidai da farashin kayan masarufi don cibiyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi na zamani.

Aikin Intel na haɓaka fasahar WiMAX a Rasha ana aiwatar da shi ne tare da haɗin gwiwar Ƙungiyar Sadarwa ta Documentary Telecommunications Association (ADE) ta ƙungiyar jama'a ta Ƙungiyar Aiki akan hanyoyin sadarwar bayanan mara waya.

A matsayin wani ɓangare na uku na Rasha Intel Forum for Developers, da jama'a fasahar zanga-zanga na 802.16a misali tsarin (WiMAX) da aka kaddamar, developer da maroki wanda shi ne cikin gida kamfanin RM Telecom, abokin tarayya na Alvarion, wanda ya sanya hannu. yarjejeniya mai mahimmanci tare da Intel Corporation akan haɓaka tsarin WiMAX. A cikin tsarin dandalin, RM Telecom ya nuna samfurin irin waɗannan dandamali - tsarin BreezeACCESS VL, yana ba da gidan yanar gizon Intanet a cikin ginin Cibiyar Kimiyyar Kimiyya ta Rasha tare da tashar tushe da na'urorin abokin ciniki da yawa da ke tallafawa fasahar 802.16a (WiMAX).

Game da rumbunan tasha, farashinsu na farko zai canja kusan dala 100,000, duk da haka, bayan lokaci, zai ragu zuwa $20,000.

Daga cikin fiye da 80 tsaye na nunin fasahohi da mafita, tsayawar R.M.Telecom ya kasance mai ban sha'awa ta hanyar nuna kayan aiki don tsara hanyoyin sadarwar mara waya ta kashin baya da hanyar Intanet mara waya: Tashoshin rediyo na WOCCOM na Rasha tare da bandwidth na har zuwa 100 Mbps. , Ƙarshe kayan aikin Motorola Canopy da Alvarion BreezeACCESS VL OFDM misali.


Dangane da abubuwan da aka sa ran za a iya tura WiMAX a cikin shekaru masu zuwa, Intel na ganin fara aikin watsa shirye-shiryen watsa shirye-shirye don bangaren SOHO da kasuwar tsarin mabukaci a cikin 2005, WiMAX a cikin wayoyin hannu da tallafin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka a 2006. A shekara ta 2007, WiMAX na iya yaduwa cikin sauri a cikin kwamfutocin tafi-da-gidanka, kuma nan da shekara ta 2008 an yi hasashen cewa za a aiwatar da goyon bayan mizanin a kashi 50% na kwamfutocin da ake sayar da su a duniya.

A shekara ta 2009, manazarta suna tsammanin 802.16/WiMAX na tushen ababen more rayuwa na cibiyar sadarwa mara waya zai fara girma cikin sauri. An yi hasashen cewa siyar da kayan aikin WiMAX na iya kai kusan dala biliyan biyu cikin shekaru biyar.

IDF Moscow 2004: baya, yanzu da nan gaba na WiMAX Daga cikin abubuwan IT na shekara-shekara na kaka, Intel Developer Forum yana daya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da suka faru, a cikin shekara ta uku a jere daidai da jan hankalin masu karatu da duk 'yan'uwa da ke rubutu game da batutuwan kwamfuta. Waɗannan tarurrukan sun zama masu ban sha'awa musamman bayan kwas ɗin Intel da aka sanar a shekarar da ta gabata don ba da cikakken goyon baya ga yanayin masana'antar don haɗin gwiwar kayan aikin sadarwa da kwamfuta.

A yanzu haka al’ummar kamfanonin da ke halartar wannan dandalin, sun hada da masu samar da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani da na kwamfuta, masu kera kowane irin kayan aiki, gami da sadarwa da na’ura mai kwakwalwa. Wato, bisa ga bayanin martabar Mobile-Review.com - ba duka ba, amma da yawa.

Abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin za a iya raba su zuwa bangarori biyu cikakku na ma’ana, kowannensu ya cancanci fayyace dalla-dalla a kansa. Waɗannan rahotanni ne da yawa, gabatarwar kimiyya da aikin dakin gwaje-gwaje da Intel da abokan haɗin gwiwarsa ke gudanarwa a cikin haɗin gwiwa na haɓaka sabbin fasahohi. Bugu da kari, wannan nuni ne na kamfanoni a cikin masana'antar, inda mahalarta ke nuna galibin ci gaba mai ban sha'awa, maimakon samfuran da aka gama, ba kamar nunin IT na yau da kullun ba. Yin la'akari da cewa wani muhimmin ɓangare na baje kolin yana wakiltar kamfanonin Rasha, baƙo yana da damar yin la'akari da makomar manyan fasahohin gida daga kusurwar ido.

Zai yi kyau a ba da labari game da abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin har ma fiye da haka. Kaito, dole ne mutum ya zaɓi tsakanin salon "hare-hare" masu yawa akan duk abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin tattaunawa da labari game da wani maɓalli (a ganina). Game da sauran - wani lokaci kuma.

Ba asiri ba ne cewa gidajen yanar gizo na yanzu da na kamfanoni suna cikin layukan DSL masu sauri da na USB, nan gaba da yawa daga cikinsu za su zama mara waya. Tabbas, a yanzu yawancin kamfanonin sadarwa a duniya suna ba da gudummawa sosai wajen bunkasa hanyoyin sadarwar salula na zamani, musamman tsararraki na uku, wadanda, tare da ayyukan sadarwar gargajiya, suna ba da damar shiga Intanet cikin sauri da kuma hanyoyin sadarwar kamfanoni. A lokaci guda tare da wannan motsi a ɓangaren cibiyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu, tsarin "sauran gefen" yana girma da fadadawa, lokacin da cibiyar sadarwar kwamfuta ta al'ada ta zama mara waya, da yawa "tsawon tsayi", yana ƙara ba da musayar bayanai na gargajiya kawai, har ma da duka. nau'ikan zaɓuɓɓukan sadarwar murya, gami da VoIP yana haɓakawa sosai.

An bayyana ƙoƙarin farko na ƙirƙirar cibiyoyin sadarwa mara waya ta hanyar bayyanar wuraren shiga Wi-Fi na farko. A cikin ƴan shekaru, cibiyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi sun tafi daga yunƙurin jin kunya a wani abu ko žasa da tsari zuwa manyan abubuwan more rayuwa na kamfanoni da manyan hanyoyin sadarwa na wuraren samun dama a cikin ƙasashe da yawa da suka ci gaba, inda aka ba da ɗaukar hoto na Wi-Fi a cikin yanki na daidaikun mutane. . Tare da duk fa'idodin irin wannan mafita na "mile na ƙarshe" saboda tsadar kayan more rayuwa da ƙaramin radius na ɗaukar hoto na hanyar samun dama, ƙaramin yanki na masu amfani a duk faɗin duniya na iya samun irin waɗannan hanyoyin. A wannan kasa tamu, ci gaban irin wadannan hanyoyin sadarwa ya zuwa yanzu a daidai gwargwado, musamman a manyan birane, a ma’aikatun gwamnati, kuma har ya zuwa yanzu ba za a iya cewa suna da yawa ta kowace fuska. Sabuwar ƙayyadaddun ƙashin bayaWiMAX yana ba da damar haɗin mara waya mai sauri mai sauƙi don masu amfani da gida da kamfanoni, duka a cikin birane da yankunan karkara. WiMAX (Haɗin kai na Duniya don Samun Microwave) kalma ce ta laima don samun damar mara waya ta hanyar sadarwa ta hanyar IEEE 802.16 dangin ƙa'idodi. Za a shigar da wuraren shiga IEEE 802.16 musamman akan manyan gine-gine da matsi, kama da kayan sadarwar salula. Ba zato ba tsammani, masu aiki na cibiyoyin sadarwar salula ne suka fi sha'awar lasisi da siyan kayan aikin WiMAX, wanda hada irin wannan nau'in sadarwa a cikin tsarin su zai zama mafi ƙarancin tsada kuma a nan gaba, na iya kawo riba mai yawa. Aƙalla a gare ni da kaina, ba zai zama babban abin mamaki ba idan, bayan lokaci, cibiyoyin sadarwar salula na 3G / 4G suna tare da kayan aikin Wi-Fi / WiMAX, kuma a nan gaba za a matse su ta ƙarshe, saboda har yanzu. Babban aikin cibiyoyin sadarwar salula shine watsa bayanan murya wani yanki ne kawai na ayyukan wayar hannu ta al'ada. Matsala ce ta farko.

An fahimci cewa kayan aiki don cibiyoyin sadarwar WiMAX gabaɗaya ana sarrafa su a tashoshi na mitar a cikin kewayon 2 - 11 GHz, musamman ga ƙasashe daban-daban, a cikin sassan da ke da fadin tashar ta 10 MHz. A kan sikelin tashar tushe ɗaya na ƙarni na farko na samfuran WiMAX, ana sa ran za ta samar da hanyar shiga mara waya a kan yanki mai radiyon har zuwa kilomita 50 tare da mafi girman tashar tashar har zuwa 35 Mbps. Ƙididdigar da aka keɓe ga wani mai amfani yana ƙayyade ta mai bayarwa kuma ana iya daidaita shi duka a matakin DSL - ga daidaikun mutane, kuma har zuwa matakin T1 don ƙungiyoyi. Ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa an biya mafi girman hankali ga aiwatar da hanyoyin sadarwar WiMAX a cikin ƙasashe masu manyan yankuna da nisa daga manyan biranen, da kuma tare da kaso mai kyau na mutanen karkara. Ba wai kawai Brazil, China da Rasha sun fada cikin wannan rukuni ba, har ma, alal misali, Sweden, inda gabatarwar WiMAX ya kasance a yanzu - ba shakka, a matsayin ƙari ga GSM / EDGE da 3G.

A dandalin karshe, an sadaukar da da yawa ga batun ci gaban WiMAX. Wannan ya hada da nuni na IEEE802.16-2004 gwaji cibiyar sadarwa a cikin harabar da Rasha Academy of Sciences, da nunin kashin baya da abokin ciniki kayan aiki, da kuma, a karshe, wani cikakken rahoto a kan topic "Ci gaban Broadband Wireless damar: daga kafaffen dama ga motsi" wanda Dmitry Laryushin, manajan tallace-tallacen fasaha a Sashen Wireless Broadband na Intel ya yi.

Dangane da hangen nesa na Intel don haɓaka hanyoyin sadarwa mara igiyar waya a duk duniya, kayan aikin da aka tabbatar da WiMAX za su fara fitowa a kasuwa daga tsakiyar 2005.

Abokan haɗin gwiwar Intel da WiMAX a halin yanzu suna haɓaka samfuran manyan aikace-aikace guda uku don sabon ƙirar mara waya.

Ana haɓaka ƙayyadaddun samfurina matsayin madadin hanyoyin watsa siginar na USB/T1/DSL na gargajiya kuma an yi shi ne don sassan kasuwa waɗanda ba su da kyau kuma ba su cika aiki ta hanyar sabis na faɗaɗa ba - yankunan karkara. da kasashe masu tasowa. Amfani da wannan ƙirar yana nuna shigar da eriya ta waje, na'urorin ƙofa waɗanda ke yin ayyuka kama da na modem na USB da modem DSL. wannan samfurin za a siffanta shi ta amfani da Layer na jiki na OFDM256 da ka'idar IEEE802.16-2004.

Samfuran

Mai ɗaukana amfani da WiMAX shine ƙirƙirar hanyar sadarwa na ingantaccen haɗin Wi-Fi don wayar hannu da kafaffen abokan ciniki tare da kwamfutocin tebur, kwamfyutoci da PDAs. Na'urar abokin ciniki ta sake haɗawa kuma tana tabbatarwa a kowane kafaffen wurin sabis. Babban manufar ita ce samar da hanyar shiga Intanet da wayar VoIP. Wannan ƙirar za ta yi amfani da Layer na zahiri na OFDMA mai ƙima, ma'aunin IEEE802.16e, ayyukan tsaro na ci gaba (PKMv2), kuma yana aiki tare da daidaitawa da tsarin eriya na MIMO.

A ƙarshe, daTotal Motsi Model, ko "Ingantattun 3G Data" kamar yadda kuma ake kira. Ƙungiya mai niyya - masu amfani da wayoyin hannu da kwamfutocin aljihu tare da watsa murya da watsa bayanai, musaya da aka haɗa cikin motoci, da sauransu. Cikakken samfurin wayar hannu ya haɗa da damar samfurin šaukuwa tare da tallafi don aikace-aikacen ainihin lokaci, gami da murya da bidiyo yayin tafiya. Misalai na amfani sun haɗa da aikace-aikacen IP - damar Intanet, imel, saƙo, FTP, VPN, da sauransu; aikace-aikace na lokaci-lokaci - wasanni akan Intanet, rafukan bayanan multimedia, VoIP; Ayyukan bayanan 3G: sabis na tushen wuri, paging, SMS, MMS, E911. Babban abin da wannan samfurin zai mayar da hankali a kai shi ne yin amfani da ma'aunin IEEE802.16f/g tare da daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwa na cibiyar sadarwa.

Game da amfani da IEEE802.16e yarjejeniya tare da scalable OFDMA Layer na jiki wanda ya dace da adadin FFT sautunan da aka yi amfani da shi dangane da rabon da aka keɓe na bandwidth na tashar, a nan gaba, amfani da wannan fasaha zai ba da damar sassauƙa. daidaitawa ga kowane kasuwa na gida tare da bandwidth bakan sa. A lokaci guda, OFDMA tana goyan bayan tsarin eriya masu daidaitawa (AAS), wanda ke ba da damar watsa eriya da yawa da kuma rarraba watsawa, ƙirar katako, da tuƙi mara amfani.
OFDMA kuma tana goyan bayan saitin zaɓuɓɓukan eriya ta MIMO ta amfani da watsawa da yawa da karɓar jeri-jerun eriya.

Aikace-aikacen tsarin eriya 2, 3, ko 4 https://cars45.co.ke/listing/bmw The / 520i/2011 downlink (DL) da 2 uplink (UL) eriya suna ba da aiki mai sassauƙa da ɗaukar hoto tare da goyan baya don haɓakar sararin samaniya (SM) don iyakar ƙimar bakan. MIMO yana ƙara yawan hanyoyin yadawa tsakanin mai watsawa da mai karɓa, ana tattara bayanai game da tsarin SISO a cikin tashar faduwa idan hanyoyin yadawa sun bambanta. Ana iya amfani da MIMO don tsawaita kewayon hanyar sadarwar WiMAX. Hakanan yana ba da ɗimbin yawa don haɓaka ƙimar bayanai akan tsarin eriya ɗaya.

Duk da kamanceceniyar dangin IEEE802.16 na ma'auni, akwai wasu bambance-bambance a tsakanin su don dacewa da aikace-aikacen manufa daban-daban. Misali, kamar yadda aka nuna a zanen da ke sama. Babban abin da ke faruwa a wannan mataki shi ne ƙaddamar da ƙa'idar guda ɗaya ta duniya don tsarin šaukuwa da wayar hannu, da kuma haɗa hanyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi da WiMAX da na'urorin abokin ciniki don haɓaka juna.

Tabbas, jerin yuwuwar samfura don amfani da kayan aikin WiMAX bai iyakance ga wannan ba. Babban fa'idodin WiMAX idan aka kwatanta da 3G ana kiran su da ingantaccen amfani da bakan mitar don watsa bayanai, ƙarin kewayon Wi-Fi da ɗaukar hoto, kazalika da ƙarfin gwiwa don musayar bayanai a cikin abubuwan motsi (har zuwa 120 km / h). Ƙara zuwa wannan akwai sassauƙan tsarin gine-gine don tallafawa aikin nasara na masu aiki da yawa, da kuma amfani da hanyoyin sadarwar IP don tabbatar da haɗin kai da rage farashin babban birnin.

Abin takaici, har yanzu akwai doguwar hanya a gaban takaddun shaida da gwajin haɗin gwiwa tare da tsarin šaukuwa da wayar hannu, da ƙarin rikitattun abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da hanyoyin sadarwar rediyo, ƙayyadaddun I/F da ma'amala, kafin sabbin ƙa'idodin WiMAX sun karɓe sosai. An tattauna wannan dalla-dalla a cikin kwanaki na Dandalin.

Bugu da ƙari, samun lasisi don amfani da kewayon mitar da ya dace yana haifar da matsala ga kasuwar Rasha. A Arewacin Amirka, WiMAX zai yi amfani da sassan a cikin 2.5 da 5 GHz band, a Tsakiya da Kudancin Amirka - 2.5, 3.5 da kuma 5 GHz, a Gabas ta Tsakiya, Afirka, Yammacin Turai da Gabashin Turai - 3.5 da 5 GHz, a cikin Asia- Yankin Pacific - 2.3, 3.5 da 5 GHz. A cikin ƙasarmu, ana sa ran samun lasisi don rukunin 5 GHz, duk da haka, har yanzu ba a warware wasu matsaloli tare da janye wannan rukunin daga ikon soja ba. An danƙa yanke shawarar duk batutuwa ga ƙungiyar WiMAX Forum da aka ƙirƙira don waɗannan dalilai.


A nunin, wanda ya faru a yayin taron, an nuna wa jama'a gabaɗayan guntu guda ɗaya na Intel Rosedale bayani, wanda ya haɗa da matakin MAC na daidaitattun 802.16-2004 (wanda aka fi sani da IEEE 802.16REVd) da OFDM ( Matsakaicin Frequency Division Multiplexing) ƙa'idar Layer na zahiri, da kuma ginanniyar tsarin tsaro na bayanai da haɗin kai tare da mai sarrafa lokaci mai yawa. Za a shigar da wannan kayan aiki a gidaje da kasuwanci, tare da ba da liyafar karɓa da watsa sigina don shiga Intanet.

Gabaɗaya, ana iya kiran guntu na Rosedale tushen tsarin abokin ciniki na WiMAX guda ɗaya na farko wanda ke nufin kayan aikin kwamfuta masu rahusa. Gaskiya ne, a matakin farko, farashin na'urorin WiMAX abokin ciniki zai kasance kusan $ 350. Koyaya, tare da ci gaba da yaduwar fasaha, farashin kayan aiki zai ragu zuwa $ 200, sannan gaba ɗaya daidai da farashin kayan masarufi don cibiyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi na zamani.

Aikin Intel na haɓaka fasahar WiMAX a Rasha ana aiwatar da shi ne tare da haɗin gwiwar Ƙungiyar Sadarwa ta Documentary Telecommunications Association (ADE) ta ƙungiyar jama'a ta Ƙungiyar Aiki akan hanyoyin sadarwar bayanan mara waya.

A matsayin wani ɓangare na uku na Rasha Intel Forum for Developers, da jama'a fasahar zanga-zanga na 802.16a misali tsarin (WiMAX) da aka kaddamar, developer da maroki wanda shi ne cikin gida kamfanin RM Telecom, abokin tarayya na Alvarion, wanda ya sanya hannu. yarjejeniya mai mahimmanci tare da Intel Corporation akan haɓaka tsarin WiMAX. A cikin tsarin dandalin, RM Telecom ya nuna samfurin irin waɗannan dandamali - tsarin BreezeACCESS VL, yana ba da gidan yanar gizon Intanet a cikin ginin Cibiyar Kimiyyar Kimiyya ta Rasha tare da tashar tushe da na'urorin abokin ciniki da yawa da ke tallafawa fasahar 802.16a (WiMAX).

Game da rumbunan tasha, farashinsu na farko zai canja kusan dala 100,000, duk da haka, bayan lokaci, zai ragu zuwa $20,000.

Daga cikin fiye da 80 tsaye na nunin fasahohi da mafita, tsayawar R.M.Telecom ya kasance mai ban sha'awa ta hanyar nuna kayan aiki don tsara hanyoyin sadarwar mara waya ta kashin baya da hanyar Intanet mara waya: Tashoshin rediyo na WOCCOM na Rasha tare da bandwidth na har zuwa 100 Mbps. , Ƙarshe kayan aikin Motorola Canopy da Alvarion BreezeACCESS VL OFDM misali.


Dangane da abubuwan da aka sa ran za a iya tura WiMAX a cikin shekaru masu zuwa, Intel na ganin fara aikin watsa shirye-shiryen watsa shirye-shirye don bangaren SOHO da kasuwar tsarin mabukaci a cikin 2005, WiMAX a cikin wayoyin hannu da tallafin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka a 2006. A shekara ta 2007, WiMAX na iya yaduwa cikin sauri a cikin kwamfutocin tafi-da-gidanka, kuma nan da shekara ta 2008 an yi hasashen cewa za a aiwatar da goyon bayan mizanin a kashi 50% na kwamfutocin da ake sayar da su a duniya.

A shekara ta 2009, manazarta suna tsammanin 802.16/WiMAX na tushen ababen more rayuwa na cibiyar sadarwa mara waya zai fara girma cikin sauri. An yi hasashen cewa siyar da kayan aikin WiMAX na iya kai kusan dala biliyan biyu cikin shekaru biyar.

IDF Moscow 2004: baya, yanzu da nan gaba na WiMAX Daga cikin abubuwan IT na shekara-shekara na kaka, Intel Developer Forum yana daya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da suka faru, a cikin shekara ta uku a jere daidai da jan hankalin masu karatu da duk 'yan'uwa da ke rubutu game da batutuwan kwamfuta. Waɗannan tarurrukan sun zama masu ban sha'awa musamman bayan kwas ɗin Intel da aka sanar a shekarar da ta gabata don ba da cikakken goyon baya ga yanayin masana'antar don haɗin gwiwar kayan aikin sadarwa da kwamfuta.

A yanzu haka al’ummar kamfanonin da ke halartar wannan dandalin, sun hada da masu samar da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani da na kwamfuta, masu kera kowane irin kayan aiki, gami da sadarwa da na’ura mai kwakwalwa. Wato, bisa ga bayanin martabar Mobile-Review.com - ba duka ba, amma da yawa.

Abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin za a iya raba su zuwa bangarori biyu cikakku na ma’ana, kowannensu ya cancanci fayyace dalla-dalla a kansa. Waɗannan rahotanni ne da yawa, gabatarwar kimiyya da aikin dakin gwaje-gwaje da Intel da abokan haɗin gwiwarsa ke gudanarwa a cikin haɗin gwiwa na haɓaka sabbin fasahohi. Bugu da kari, wannan nuni ne na kamfanoni a cikin masana'antar, inda mahalarta ke nuna galibin ci gaba mai ban sha'awa, maimakon samfuran da aka gama, ba kamar nunin IT na yau da kullun ba. Yin la'akari da cewa wani muhimmin ɓangare na baje kolin yana wakiltar kamfanonin Rasha, baƙo yana da damar yin la'akari da makomar manyan fasahohin gida daga kusurwar ido.

Zai yi kyau a ba da labari game da abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin har ma fiye da haka. Kaito, dole ne mutum ya zaɓi tsakanin salon "hare-hare" masu yawa akan duk abubuwan da suka faru a dandalin tattaunawa da labari game da wani maɓalli (a ganina). Game da sauran - wani lokaci kuma.

Ba asiri ba ne cewa gidajen yanar gizo na yanzu da na kamfanoni suna cikin layukan DSL masu sauri da na USB, nan gaba da yawa daga cikinsu za su zama mara waya. Tabbas, a yanzu yawancin kamfanonin sadarwa a duniya suna ba da gudummawa sosai wajen bunkasa hanyoyin sadarwar salula na zamani, musamman tsararraki na uku, wadanda, tare da ayyukan sadarwar gargajiya, suna ba da damar shiga Intanet cikin sauri da kuma hanyoyin sadarwar kamfanoni. A lokaci guda tare da wannan motsi a ɓangaren cibiyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu, tsarin "sauran gefen" yana girma da fadadawa, lokacin da cibiyar sadarwar kwamfuta ta al'ada ta zama mara waya, da yawa "tsawon tsayi", yana ƙara ba da musayar bayanai na gargajiya kawai, har ma da duka. nau'ikan zaɓuɓɓukan sadarwar murya, gami da VoIP yana haɓakawa sosai.

An bayyana ƙoƙarin farko na ƙirƙirar cibiyoyin sadarwa mara waya ta hanyar bayyanar wuraren shiga Wi-Fi na farko. A cikin ƴan shekaru, cibiyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi sun tafi daga yunƙurin jin kunya a wani abu ko žasa da tsari zuwa manyan abubuwan more rayuwa na kamfanoni da manyan hanyoyin sadarwa na wuraren samun dama a cikin ƙasashe da yawa da suka ci gaba, inda aka ba da ɗaukar hoto na Wi-Fi a cikin yanki na daidaikun mutane. . Tare da duk fa'idodin irin wannan mafita na "mile na ƙarshe" saboda tsadar kayan more rayuwa da ƙaramin radius na ɗaukar hoto na hanyar samun dama, ƙaramin yanki na masu amfani a duk faɗin duniya na iya samun irin waɗannan hanyoyin. A wannan kasa tamu, ci gaban irin wadannan hanyoyin sadarwa ya zuwa yanzu a daidai gwargwado, musamman a manyan birane, a ma’aikatun gwamnati, kuma har ya zuwa yanzu ba za a iya cewa suna da yawa ta kowace fuska. Sabon ma'aunin ƙashin baya na WiMAX ya ba da damar tsara haɗin mara waya mai sauri mai sauƙi don masu amfani da gida da na kamfanoni, a cikin birane da yankunan karkara. WiMAX (Haɗin kai na Duniya don Samun Microwave) kalma ce ta laima don samun damar mara waya ta hanyar sadarwa ta hanyar IEEE 802.16 dangin ƙa'idodi. Za a shigar da wuraren shiga IEEE 802.16 musamman akan manyan gine-gine da matsi, kama da kayan sadarwar salula. Ba zato ba tsammani, masu aiki na cibiyoyin sadarwar salula ne suka fi sha'awar lasisi da siyan kayan aikin WiMAX, wanda hada irin wannan nau'in sadarwa a cikin tsarin su zai zama mafi ƙarancin tsada kuma a nan gaba, na iya kawo riba mai yawa. Aƙalla a gare ni da kaina, ba zai zama babban abin mamaki ba idan, bayan lokaci, cibiyoyin sadarwar salula na 3G / 4G suna tare da kayan aikin Wi-Fi / WiMAX, kuma a nan gaba za a matse su ta ƙarshe, saboda har yanzu. Babban aikin cibiyoyin sadarwar salula shine watsa bayanan murya wani yanki ne kawai na ayyukan wayar hannu ta al'ada. Matsala ce ta farko.

An fahimci cewa kayan aiki don cibiyoyin sadarwar WiMAX gabaɗaya ana sarrafa su a tashoshi na mitar a cikin kewayon 2 - 11 GHz, musamman ga ƙasashe daban-daban, a cikin sassan da ke da fadin tashar ta 10 MHz. A kan sikelin tashar tushe ɗaya na ƙarni na farko na samfuran WiMAX, ana sa ran za ta samar da hanyar shiga mara waya a kan yanki mai radiyon har zuwa kilomita 50 tare da mafi girman tashar tashar har zuwa 35 Mbps. Ƙididdigar da aka keɓe ga wani mai amfani yana ƙayyade ta mai bayarwa kuma ana iya daidaita shi duka a matakin DSL - ga daidaikun mutane, kuma har zuwa matakin T1 don ƙungiyoyi. Ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa an biya mafi girman hankali ga aiwatar da hanyoyin sadarwar WiMAX a cikin ƙasashe masu manyan yankuna da nisa daga manyan biranen, da kuma tare da kaso mai kyau na mutanen karkara. Ba wai kawai Brazil, China da Rasha sun fada cikin wannan rukuni ba, har ma, alal misali, Sweden, inda gabatarwar WiMAX ya kasance a yanzu - ba shakka, a matsayin ƙari ga GSM / EDGE da 3G.

A dandalin karshe, an sadaukar da da yawa ga batun ci gaban WiMAX. Wannan ya hada da nuni na IEEE802.16-2004 gwaji cibiyar sadarwa a cikin harabar da Rasha Academy of Sciences, da nunin kashin baya da abokin ciniki kayan aiki, da kuma, a karshe, wani cikakken rahoto a kan topic "Ci gaban Broadband Wireless damar: daga kafaffen dama ga motsi" wanda Dmitry Laryushin, manajan tallace-tallacen fasaha a Sashen Wireless Broadband na Intel ya yi.

Dangane da hangen nesa na Intel don haɓaka hanyoyin sadarwa mara igiyar waya a duk duniya, kayan aikin da aka tabbatar da WiMAX za su fara fitowa a kasuwa daga tsakiyar 2005.

Abokan haɗin gwiwar Intel da WiMAX a halin yanzu suna haɓaka samfuran manyan aikace-aikace guda uku don sabon ƙirar mara waya.

Ana haɓaka ƙayyadaddun ƙirar a matsayin madadin layukan watsa siginar na USB/T1/DSL na gargajiya kuma an yi niyya don ɓangarorin kasuwa waɗanda ba su da cikakkiyar hidima ta sabis na faɗaɗa wayoyi - yankunan karkara da ƙasashe masu tasowa. Amfani da wannan ƙirar yana nuna shigar da eriya ta waje, na'urorin ƙofa waɗanda ke yin ayyuka kama da na modem na USB da modem DSL. wannan samfurin za a siffanta shi ta hanyar amfani da Layer na jiki na OFDM256 da ka'idar IEEE802.16-2004.

Samfurin amfani da WiMAX mai ɗaukuwa ya ƙunshi ƙirƙirar hanyar sadarwa na ingantaccen haɗin Wi-Fi don wayar hannu da kafaffen abokan ciniki tare da kwamfutocin tebur, kwamfyutoci da PDAs. Na'urar abokin ciniki ta sake haɗawa kuma tana tabbatarwa a kowane kafaffen wurin sabis. Babban manufar ita ce samar da hanyar shiga Intanet da wayar VoIP. Wannan ƙirar za ta yi amfani da Layer na zahiri na OFDMA mai ƙima, ma'aunin IEEE802.16e, ayyukan tsaro na ci gaba (PKMv2), kuma yana aiki tare da daidaitawa da tsarin eriya na MIMO.

A ƙarshe, cikakken tsarin motsi, ko kuma kamar yadda ake kira, "3G Extended Data Transfer". Ƙungiya mai niyya - masu amfani da wayoyin hannu da kwamfutocin aljihu tare da watsa murya da watsa bayanai, musaya da aka haɗa cikin motoci, da sauransu. Cikakken samfurin wayar hannu ya haɗa da damar samfurin šaukuwa tare da tallafi don aikace-aikacen ainihin lokaci, gami da murya da bidiyo yayin tafiya. Misalai na amfani sun haɗa da aikace-aikacen IP - damar Intanet, imel, saƙo, FTP, VPN, da sauransu; aikace-aikace na lokaci-lokaci - wasanni akan Intanet, rafukan bayanan multimedia, VoIP; Ayyukan bayanan 3G: sabis na tushen wuri, paging, SMS, MMS, E911. Babban abin da wannan samfurin zai mayar da hankali a kai shi ne yin amfani da ma'aunin IEEE802.16f/g tare da daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwa na cibiyar sadarwa.

Game da amfani da IEEE802.16e yarjejeniya tare da scalable OFDMA Layer na jiki wanda ya dace da adadin FFT sautunan da aka yi amfani da shi dangane da rabon da aka keɓe na bandwidth na tashar, a nan gaba, amfani da wannan fasaha zai ba da damar sassauƙa. daidaitawa ga kowane kasuwa na gida tare da bandwidth bakan sa. A lokaci guda, OFDMA tana goyan bayan tsarin eriya masu daidaitawa (AAS), wanda ke ba da damar watsa eriya da yawa da kuma rarraba watsawa, ƙirar katako, da tuƙi mara amfani. OFDMA kuma tana goyan bayan saitin zaɓuɓɓukan eriya na MIMO waɗanda ke amfani da watsawa da yawa da karɓar jeri na eriya.

Amfani da 2, 3, ko 4 downlink (DL) da 2 uplink (UL) tsarin eriya Samfuran sararin samaniya (SM) don haɓaka ingantaccen bakan. MIMO yana ƙara yawan hanyoyin yadawa tsakanin mai watsawa da mai karɓa, ana tattara bayanai game da tsarin SISO a cikin tashar faduwa idan hanyoyin yadawa sun bambanta. Ana iya amfani da MIMO don tsawaita kewayon hanyar sadarwar WiMAX. Hakanan yana ba da ɗimbin yawa don haɓaka ƙimar bayanai akan tsarin eriya ɗaya.

Aikace-aikacen tsarin daga eriya 2, 3, ko 4 https://cars45.co.ke/listing/bmw/520i/2011 https://cars45.co.ke/listing/bmw/520i/2011 downlink (DL) da 2 uplink (UL) eriya suna ba da ma'auni mai sassauƙa na aiki da ɗaukar hoto tare da goyan bayan haɓakar sararin samaniya (SM) don matsakaicin ƙimar bakan. MIMO yana ƙara yawan hanyoyin yadawa tsakanin mai watsawa da mai karɓa, ana tattara bayanai game da tsarin SISO a cikin tashar faduwa idan hanyoyin yadawa sun bambanta. Ana iya amfani da MIMO don ƙara kewayo a cikin hanyar sadarwar WiMAX. Bugu da ƙari, ana samar da yawan adadin sararin samaniya don ƙara ƙimar bayanai akan tsarin eriya ɗaya.

Duk da kamanceceniyar dangin IEEE802.16 na ma'auni, akwai wasu bambance-bambance a tsakanin su don dacewa da aikace-aikacen manufa daban-daban. Misali, kamar yadda aka nuna a zanen da ke sama. Babban abin da ke faruwa a wannan mataki shi ne ƙaddamar da ƙa'idar guda ɗaya ta duniya don tsarin šaukuwa da wayar hannu, da kuma haɗa hanyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi da WiMAX da na'urorin abokin ciniki don haɓaka juna.

Tabbas, jerin yuwuwar samfura don amfani da kayan aikin WiMAX bai iyakance ga wannan ba. Babban abũbuwan amfãni na WiMAX idan aka kwatanta da 3G ne mafi m amfani da mitar bakan don watsa bayanai, ƙarin Wi-Fi kewayon da ɗaukar hoto, kazalika da m goyon baya ga musayar bayanai a motsi abubuwa (har zuwa 120 km / h). Ƙara zuwa wannan akwai sassauƙan tsarin gine-gine don tallafawa aikin nasara na masu aiki da yawa, da kuma amfani da hanyoyin sadarwar IP don tabbatar da haɗin kai da rage farashin babban birnin.

Abin takaici, har yanzu akwai doguwar hanya a gaban takaddun shaida da gwajin haɗin gwiwa tare da tsarin šaukuwa da wayar hannu, da ƙarin rikitattun abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da hanyoyin sadarwar rediyo, ƙayyadaddun I/F da ma'amala, kafin sabbin ƙa'idodin WiMAX sun karɓe sosai. An tattauna wannan dalla-dalla a cikin kwanaki na Dandalin.

Bugu da ƙari, samun lasisi don amfani da kewayon mitar da ya dace yana haifar da matsala ga kasuwar Rasha. A Arewacin Amirka, WiMAX zai yi amfani da sassan a cikin 2.5 da 5 GHz band, a Tsakiya da Kudancin Amirka - 2.5, 3.5 da kuma 5 GHz, a Gabas ta Tsakiya, Afirka, Yammacin Turai da Gabashin Turai - 3.5 da 5 GHz, a cikin Asia- Yankin Pacific - 2.3, 3.5 da 5 GHz. A cikin ƙasarmu, ana sa ran samun lasisi don rukunin 5 GHz, duk da haka, har yanzu ba a warware wasu matsaloli tare da janye wannan rukunin daga ikon soja ba. An danƙa yanke shawarar duk batutuwa ga ƙungiyar WiMAX Forum da aka ƙirƙira don waɗannan dalilai.


A nunin, wanda ya faru a yayin taron, an nuna wa jama'a gabaɗayan guntu guda ɗaya na Intel Rosedale bayani, wanda ya haɗa da matakin MAC na daidaitattun 802.16-2004 (wanda aka fi sani da IEEE 802.16REVd) da OFDM ( Matsakaicin Frequency Division Multiplexing) ƙa'idar Layer na zahiri, da kuma ginanniyar tsarin tsaro na bayanai da haɗin kai tare da mai sarrafa lokaci mai yawa. Za a shigar da wannan kayan aiki a gidaje da kasuwanci, tare da ba da liyafar karɓa da watsa sigina don shiga Intanet.

Gabaɗaya, ana iya kiran guntu na Rosedale tushen tsarin abokin ciniki na WiMAX guda ɗaya na farko wanda ke nufin kayan aikin kwamfuta masu rahusa. Gaskiya ne, a matakin farko, farashin na'urorin WiMAX abokin ciniki zai kasance kusan $ 350. Koyaya, tare da ci gaba da yaduwar fasaha, farashin kayan aiki zai ragu zuwa $ 200, sannan gaba ɗaya daidai da farashin kayan masarufi don cibiyoyin sadarwar Wi-Fi na zamani.

Aikin Intel na haɓaka fasahar WiMAX a Rasha ana aiwatar da shi ne tare da haɗin gwiwar Ƙungiyar Sadarwa ta Documentary Telecommunications Association (ADE) ta ƙungiyar jama'a ta Ƙungiyar Aiki akan hanyoyin sadarwar bayanan mara waya.

A matsayin wani ɓangare na uku na Rasha Intel Forum for Developers, da jama'a fasahar zanga-zanga na 802.16a misali tsarin (WiMAX) da aka kaddamar, developer da maroki wanda shi ne cikin gida kamfanin RM Telecom, abokin tarayya na Alvarion, wanda ya sanya hannu. yarjejeniya mai mahimmanci tare da Intel Corporation akan haɓaka tsarin WiMAX. A cikin tsarin dandalin, RM Telecom ya nuna samfurin irin waɗannan dandamali - tsarin BreezeACCESS VL, yana ba da gidan yanar gizon Intanet a cikin ginin Cibiyar Kimiyyar Kimiyya ta Rasha tare da tashar tushe da na'urorin abokin ciniki da yawa da ke tallafawa fasahar 802.16a (WiMAX).

Game da rumbunan tasha, farashinsu na farko zai canja kusan dala 100,000, duk da haka, bayan lokaci, zai ragu zuwa $20,000.

Daga cikin fiye da 80 tsaye na nunin fasahohi da mafita, tsayawar R.M.Telecom ya kasance mai ban sha'awa ta hanyar nuna kayan aiki don tsara hanyoyin sadarwar mara waya ta kashin baya da hanyar Intanet mara waya: Tashoshin rediyo na WOCCOM na Rasha tare da bandwidth na har zuwa 100 Mbps. , Ƙarshe kayan aikin Motorola Canopy da Alvarion BreezeACCESS VL OFDM misali.


Dangane da abubuwan da aka sa ran za a iya tura WiMAX a cikin shekaru masu zuwa, Intel na ganin fara aikin watsa shirye-shiryen watsa shirye-shirye don bangaren SOHO da kasuwar tsarin mabukaci a cikin 2005, WiMAX a cikin wayoyin hannu da tallafin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka a 2006. A shekara ta 2007, WiMAX na iya yaduwa cikin sauri a cikin kwamfutocin tafi-da-gidanka, kuma nan da shekara ta 2008 an yi hasashen cewa za a aiwatar da goyon bayan mizanin a kashi 50% na kwamfutocin da ake sayar da su a duniya.

A shekara ta 2009, manazarta suna tsammanin 802.16/WiMAX na tushen ababen more rayuwa na cibiyar sadarwa mara waya zai fara girma cikin sauri. An yi hasashen cewa siyar da kayan aikin WiMAX na iya kai kusan dala biliyan biyu cikin shekaru biyar.